The back cover hinted at mysterious “firemen,” strapped with fuel tanks and hoses, who paraded through a not-distant-enough future incinerating the homes of anyone caught reading.
Far from the small Midwest town of my youth, I had discovered the pungent aroma and endless treasures of Seattle’s used book stores. And here, on a rainy, autumn day, playing hooky from work, I came upon my first “Banned Books Week” display. Some lucky staff member had joyously written on small cards why each book on display had been challenged or banned by school board and parents’ groups. The reasons were fascinating–and often silly.
I chuckled subversively as I read the cards and came to the conclusion that any great author who had spoken truth to the world had likely heard the enraged calls of book banners. It had become a literary badge of courage (Yes, the Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane was banned a year after I graduated High School). Ray Bradbury’s dystopian novel, written at a time when he feared censorship and book burning during the Congressional hearings of Joseph McCarthy, was found “blasphemous.”
I made a light-hearted pledge that day, 25 years ago, to buy a banned book each year during the special week at the end of September. It was a pledge that has enriched my book collection. In college, when i was hard at work trying to find the easiest way to pass classes, I was first assigned “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.” I instead watched an old black and white video version, starring Mickey Rooney. All the darkness was drained out of the story by Hollywood, which wanted to avoid the taboos of Mark Twain’s masterpiece. Jim, Huck’s black partner and a source of much controversy, wasn’t even in the film. I bombed the exam.
I now own four copies of Huck Finn and I’ve read it numerous times. I relish the dark satire of the book, the brutally honest portrait of America’s sins, its use of language and dialect and and place. I giggled at Twain’s complete disregard for authority and convention, a vicious dissection of America’s vulgar view of race and class. It is no easy read, and there’s a reason no one has ever made a film adaptation that’s worth a damn. If a director successfully went to the dark places where Twain took his readers, protestors would block the front doors of theaters. Huckleberry Finn is not a light-hearted road trip. It saw America before America was quite ready to see itself. Something filled with wonder and quiet beauty and rustic humor, yet so dark and mean and filled with hatred and scoundrels. Ernest Hemingway called “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” the beginning of all American Literature.
It also is one of the most banned books in American history — because it scares the hell out of us. It laughs at us. It sits down in the middle of a crowded room and says, “Remember when you told that joke about the nigger, the kike and spic?” All banned books do that; they challenges what we perceive as truth.
Judy Blume’s books are constantly targeted for talking about the lives of teenagers exactly as they are, not as their parents like to think they are.
Parents tried to ban “Where the Wild Things Are” because of it’s dark imagery, regardless of its popularity among children who recognize that Maurice Sendak captured exactly what was going on in their heads.
Dee Brown’s book, “Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West,” was banned in Wisconsin in 1974 because it might be “polemical.” A school official said: “If there’s a possibility that something might be controversial, then why not eliminate it.”
I guess I should thank book banners. Since I made my vow, I’ve added the following books to my collection:
- “The Autobiography of Malcolm X,” by Malcolm X and Alex Haley, which objectors called a “how-to-manuel” for crime and decried because of “anti-white statements.” People afraid of the angry black man.
- “Catch 22,”by Joseph Heller, one of my favorite books, banned for indecent language. This masterpiece of absurdist humor is an almost perfect deconstruction of war.
- “Slaughterhouse Five,”by Kurt Vonnegut. Attempts to ban this book, based on the authors experience as a soldier in World War II at the firebombing of Dresden, mirror the novel’s message about the cold and casual loss of humanity in war, and how history repeats itself. The novel draws a special kind of rhetoric. The book has been challenged 18 times since it was published, and a Michigan judge called it “depraved, immoral, psychotic, vulgar, and anti-Christian.” That quote was exactly why I bought my first tattered copy in 1988. “So it goes”
- “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory,” by Roald Dahl: a Colorado library placed this book in a locked reference collection because the tale of Charlie Bucket and his tour of a candy factory embraced a “poor philosophy of life.” A librarian who locks books away from children “embraces a poor library policy.”
- “To Kill a Mocking Bird,” by Harper Lee, banned in Texas because it “conflicted with the values of the community.” That euphemism comes up a lot in Texas. It’s a boilerplate that school boards and libraries use when a book gives them the willies, but they can’t come up with a good reason why. Censorship of this book defies logic. Some educators call this Pulitzer-prize winning novel one of the greatest texts teens can study. Others have called it a degrading, profane and racist work that “promotes white supremacy.”
- “The Diary of a Young Girl,” by Anne Frank ran afoul of a Virgina school district in 2010 because of sexual content. In 1983 an Alabama school board attempted to challenge the book because it was “a real downer.”
- The Harry Potter books, by J.K. Rowling, which single-handedly increased teen reading in the U.S. and the United King, taught that love is the most powerful magic and that it is always right to stand up for your friends. But they are also the work of SATAN! That is if you pay attention to conservative Christians, who have tried and still try to ban the wickedly popular series of books. According to them they are filled with sorcery and witchcraft inappropriate for Christian readers. I once told a co-worker that I was reading Harry Potter to my kids. She admonished me. I responded, “Oh, have you read them?” She said, “Of course not!” I said, “You are like my children, they don’t like vegetables, even if they haven’t tasted them.”
- “The Grapes of Wrath,”by Nobel Laureate John Steinbeck: obscenity, sexual references. Ironically, California, the setting of the novel, is the first place it was banned. It has also been banned in Ireland, and a group of booksellers were taken to court in Turkey for “spreading propaganda.”
- “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest,” by Ken Kesey, a masterful novel, written under the influence of LSD. Somehow Kesey pulls off a narrator in the Chief who is insane, but still tells a lucid story. Electrifying. Not for everyone, though, obviously.
- “The Invisible Man,” by Ralph Ellison, banned in North Carolina THIS MONTH! One of the greatest books of the 20th century, it won the 1953 National Book Award for fiction. It is a difficult look at racial identity, black nationalism and Marxism. Some school boards were intimidated by of the book. Could it be that they just didn’t like it that this black man was so damn smart?
- And of course, “Catcher in the Rye,”by J.D. Salinger, the standard-bearer of banned books. Foul mouthed, rebellious Holden Caulfield is such a depressing joy to read as he heads toward his teenage nervous breakdown. One of my proudest moments as a father was the day I gave my beat-up copy to my son Joe (there are only beat up copies of Catcher) when he was in 5th grad. He came back nailing his interpretation that Holden was criticizing in all the phonies for what he feared in himself– that he was a phony, too. When the school librarian saw Joe carrying the book in the hallway she told him he shouldn’t be reading it. He came home grinning with the glee of the newborn subversive.
Literary greatness means striking fear in hearts and breaking the status quo, whether it’s the sultry pleasure of Lady Chatterley’s Lover (sex) or the irreverent nonsense of Shel Silverstein’s Light in the Attic (disrespect) or the high seas adventure of Moby Dick (“conflict with community values”).
Hemingway’s books have been banned, so have Faulkner’s. Toni Morrison has won the Pulitzer and the the Nobel, yet her novel’s, throbbing with life and color and pain, draw parental calls for their banning. “The Call of the Wild,” by Jack London, which I read four times before high school, has been challenged because of its dark tone and bloody violence and banned because of the socialist politics of its author.
“Gone With the Wind,” often cited as one of the most beloved novels of all time, was banned in California because of the immoral behavior of it’s heroine. I find it hilarious that people from a state that a large chunk of the South would like to expel from the union because of immorality, are banning a book because its southern heroine is immoral.
Logic seldom enters into the argument for banning books (or for the popularity of Gone With the Wind). Conservative Christian once banned Huckleberry Finn because it taught disrespect for authority. Today liberals want to ban it because it is racist. The dictionary has been banned because it contains bad words. The Bible, the because the Old Testament reads like torture porn.
It’s Banned Books week again. Time to buy another book. Shall I go with “Leaves of Grass” written by Walt Whitman (gay) in 1856, or “Tango Makes Three,” the true story of two male penguins who hatched an egg and raised a baby penguin together? You guessed it, banned because it promoted “the homosexual lifestyle.”
I plan on keeping my pledge. I’ll always have the classics. Little House on the Prairie (view of Native Americans), The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (negativism), or the Scarlet Letter (Can I have a “conflicts with community values”?). But in the past two years, the Hunger Games (sex and violence), The Kite Runner (homosexuality), and the Chocolate War (nudity, sex, offensive language), which was being banned when I was a kid, were atop the lists of books being pulled from shelves. And Judy Blume is about due for a new book.
I don’t think I’ll be running out of new reading material anytime soon.
Check out the American Library Association’s Banned Books Web site: http://www.ala.org/bbooks/frequentlychallengedbooks